Department of Ecology of Plant Complexes

Historical background of floristic research

Floristic research in the Polessky Nature Reserve began to be carried out since 1993 by employees of the sector V. S. Piskunov, A. N. Chudinov and R. V. Rubanova. It was in the period from 1993 to 1998 that research was conducted to identify the locations of plant species that are protected and listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus. A fairly extensive herbarium material was collected, including 98 families, 348 genera, and 581 species growing in the protected area. Subsequent research programs have marked the implementation of floristic research on an ongoing basis.

The presence of fragmented data on the natural course of the processes of transformation of plant communities identified in the period from 1992 to 1993 and from 1996 по1999 years, the studies of flora in the reserve members of the Institute of experimental botany V. F. Kuprevich of the NAS of Belarus A. N. Skuratowicz and D. V. Dubovik. Based on the results of joint research, a monograph was published in 2002: "Flora and vegetation of the Polessky State Radiation and Ecological Reserve". It provides an updated systematic list of 274 vascular plant species, including wild cultivated species. Thus, the flora of the reserve at that time consisted of 855 species of vascular plants. In addition to the description of plant communities, the taxonomic structure of the flora and the spectrum of the leading families, the paper provides cartographic information about the places of registration of species listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus and species in need of preventive protection.

From 1998 to 2003, no work was carried out to determine the species composition by the reserve staff. In 2003, geobotanical studies of the reserve's flora were resumed. The theoretical aspects of the assessment of the flora of the reserve, the formation of the herbarium of plants and the location of species listed in the Red Book of Belarus are studied.

Under the leadership of G. D. Matusov, specialists of the Scientific Department of Plant Complex Ecology registered 114 new species of vascular plants for the flora of the reserve in the period 2004-2012. Based on the results of this period of research, an article was published in 2013, which provides information about new species of vascular plants and their registration sites.

In 2014, the collected herbarium material was re-reviewed and an updated systematic list of vascular plants was compiled. According to the data obtained, 1008 species of higher plants belonging to 479 genera and 128 families have been registered on the territory of the reserve. Generalizing floristic studies of all periods was the 2014 publication reflecting a systematic list of the current state of the flora of vascular plants of the Polessky Reserve. The results of studies of the flora obtained by the research Department of plant ecology of the reserve, the report on the research work and in the works. Information about the distribution of rare and protected plant species is contained in scientific papers, articles, and reports published in different years.

Large and very valuable floral collections were made by A.V. Shamro, the main part of which is stored in the herbarium collection of the Polessky Nature Reserve. The electronic version of the herbarium of the Polessky State Radiation and Ecological Reserve, created by V. E. Roshchin, was further developed. At the moment, an updated information resource has been created, providing access to a constantly updated database, which already includes about 4,000 herbarium sheets with a complete description of the herbarium sample from the collections, which ensures the convenience of using the accumulated information.

V. S. Piskunov, A. N. Chudinov, R. V. Rubanova, G. V. Vynaev, G. D. Matusov, V. I. Kitikov, S. A. Voronenko, P. M. Yukhno, M. P. Yukhno, L. V. Malenok, A. N. Voronetskaya, L. M. Turchin, M. V. Kudin, D. K. Garbaruk, I. V. Sharkevich, S. V. Shumak, G. V. Prishchep took part in the organization, conduct of floral research, collection, and determination of plant species in different years. It should be noted that the herbarium collection of the reserve is replenished with personal collections of its employees-V. P. Tribis, I. N. Khodas, L. V. Zhilyak, M. A. Miheda, T. G. Gakel.

The staff of the State Scientific Institution "V. F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus" A. A. Skuratovich, D. V. Dubovik, D. I. Tretyakov, V. N. Tikhomirov provided assistance in determining and clarifying the species of plants throughout the years of studying the flora.

Tasks of the Department

Study of the state of plant communities and species diversity in the conditions of radioactive contamination on the territory of the Polessky State Radiation and Ecological Reserve.

Conducting research and scientific and practical developments in the field of plant radioecology.

Functions of the Department

Implementation of research activities provided for by the department's research plan.

The study of the radiation environment in the forest and meadow marsh plant communities of the Polesye state radiation-ecological reserve.

Study of the features of radioactive contamination of plants and the ratio of contamination of plant objects with the content of radionuclides in the soil.

Study of factors affecting the entry of radionuclides into plants.

Annual replenishment of the stock herbarium of the Polessky State Radiation and Ecological Reserve.

Compilation of the list of protected plants included in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, growing on the territory of the Polessky State Radiation and Ecological Reserve.

Submission of scientific reports for consideration at the meetings of the Scientific and Technical Council of the Polessky State Radiation and Ecological Reserve.

The division

Garbaruk Dmitry Konstantinovich - head of the Department

Uglyanets Anatoly Vladimirovich - leading Researcher, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences

Turchin Larisa Mikhailovna - researcher

Voronetskaya Alesya Nikolaevna - junior researcher

Shumak Svetlana Vasilievna - junior Research Fellow, Master of Agricultural Sciences

Sharkevich Inna Valentinovna - specialist of the 2nd category

Voronenko Svetlana Anatolyevna - laboratory assistant

Uglyanets A.V., Sharkevich I.V., Garbaruk D.K., Shumak S.V., Voronenko S.A., Turchin L.M., Voronetskaya A.N. (left to right)

Research work for the period 2016-2020 by the Department of Ecology of Plant Complexes is carried out on the topic: "The state of biogeocenoses in the absence of anthropogenic load and the radiation-ecological situation determined by radioactive fallout, including transuranic elements, in the near zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant" task: "Forest-forming processes on the lands of the reserve."

Research goal: to study the course of forest formation processes on forest and non-forest lands, natural forest renewal, growth of forest cultures of the Belarusian sector of the evacuation (exclusion) zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

Research objectives:

1. To assess the changes in the forest resources of the Polesie Reserve during the post-Chernobyl period.

2. To study the course of preliminary natural reforestation in the plantations of the main forest-forming species.

3. To study the course of natural reforestation on lands of former agricultural use.

4. To reveal the features of natural renewal of ancient rocks in resettled settlements.

5. To study and assess the results of artificial afforestation on the lands of former agricultural use during the post-Chernobyl period.

6. Conducting radiation-ecological monitoring of forest plantations of key formations of the main forest types.

7. Floristic research.

8. To organize, for experimental purposes, monitoring of the behavior of 90Sr and 241Am in the soil-plant-production system of plant growing and beekeeping.

Research is carried out in accordance with the approved program in four areas in accordance with the goals and tasks necessary for solving problems.

Direction "Forest formation processes on the lands of the reserve"

The studies carried out have established that under the canopy of high-aged plantations of the most widespread forest types of pine, birch, black alder and oak formations, after a 30-year absence of forestry activities, preliminary natural forest regeneration proceeds unsatisfactorily. Factors constraining this process have been determined by formations and forest types. In the distant future, ash stands with an admixture of oak are predicted to form in black alder forests, in single stands of drooping birch derived from oak forests and floodplain oak forests.

The main research results are presented in publications:

Garbaruk, D.K., Kudin M.V., Uglyanets A.V., Garbaruk D.K., Kudin M.V., Uglyanets A.V., Preliminary natural regeneration in dry pine forests of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP. scientific. tr. / NAS of Belarus, Institute of forests. - Gomel, 2017. - Issue. 77: Problems of forestry and forestry. - S. 28–38.

Kudin, M.V. Preliminary natural forest regeneration in high-aged black alder forests of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP / M.V. Kudin, A.V. Uglyanets, D.K. Garbaruk // Proceedings of BSTU. Ser. 1, Forestry, nature management and processing of renewable resources. - Minsk: BSTU, 2017. - No. 2 (198). - S. 64–72.

Kudin, M. V. Preliminary natural forest regeneration in derivative hanging birch forests of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP / M. V. Kudin, A. V. Uglyanets, D. K. Garbaruk // Coll. scientific. tr. / NAS of Belarus, Institute of forests. - Gomel, 2018. - Issue. 78: Problems of forestry and forestry. - S. 151-164.

Uglyanets, A. V. Preliminary natural forest regeneration in high-aged oak forests of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP / A. V. Uglyanets, M. V. Kudin, D. K. Garbaruk // Proceedings of BSTU. Ser. 1, Forestry, nature management and processing of renewable resources. - Minsk: BSTU, 2019. - No. 1 (216). - S. 31–41.

An unsatisfactory course of natural regeneration of tree and shrub species on the lands of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone that had been abandoned for agricultural use was established. The factors that restrain reforestation, as well as have a positive effect on it and determine the species composition of the emerging phytocenoses.

The main research results are presented in publications:

Garbaruk, DK Natural renewal of forest in clearings in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant / DK Garbaruk, A. V. Uglyanets, A. N. Voronetskaya // Proceedings of BSTU. Ser. 1, Forestry, nature management and processing of renewable resources. - Minsk: BSTU, 2019. - No. 2 (222). - pp. 33–42.

Uglyanets, A. V. Natural forest renewal on the former reclaimed lands of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP / A. V. Uglyanets, D. K. Garbaruk, I. V. Sharkevich // Coll. scientific. tr. / NAS of Belarus, Institute of forests. - Gomel, 2019. - Issue. 79: Problems of forestry and forestry. - P. 155-165.

Preliminary natural reforestation in a blueberry birch forest derived from a pine forest

Natural regeneration of forests in glades adjacent to birch forests

Natural regeneration of forests in the glades adjacent to the oles

Natural regeneration of forests in glades adjacent to oak forests

Natural regeneration of forests in glades adjacent to former settlements

Natural reforestation on reclaimed land

The efficiency of artificial afforestation of the former agricultural lands of the exclusion zone by planting pure and mixed forest plantations of pine and oak has been evaluated. It was found that an increase in planting density, additions and agrotechnical care of hardwood crops have a positive effect on their safety. In order to increase the survival rate and safety of pine crops, proposals were made to increase the density of their planting.

The main research results are presented in the publication:

Kudin, M.V. Forest culture fund of the exclusion zone and its development during the post-Chernobyl period / M.V. Kudin, S.V. Shumak // Coll. scientific. tr. / NAS of Belarus, Institute of forests. - Gomel, 2017. - Issue. 77: Problems of forestry and forestry. - S. 205–220.

The features of forest renewal on the territory of those resettled in 1986–1993 have been studied. villages located on poor sandy soils in the zone of resettlement and exclusion of the Chernobyl NPP. The species composition of trees and shrubs participating in the formation of forest plantations, including local and introduced species, hybrids and varieties of forest, fruit and berry and ornamental trees and shrubs, was revealed.

It has been established that the overgrowth of the former villages with forests is slow and has not yet been completed. Do remain under the glades. In 28–33 years after resettlement on 50% of their territory, forest-type plant communities were formed with a predominance of pioneer introduced (ash-leaved maple, white acacia) and local forest (silver birch and aspen) tree species. Small "groves" of a fruit tree - home plums - are widespread. In open areas, groups and clumps of trees continue to form, transforming into plantations of a composition uncharacteristic for the forest plantations of Polesie.

Formed plantings of white acacia in former settlements

Formed plantings of domestic plum in former settlements

Formed plantations of small-leaved species in former settlements

Formed plantings of ash-leaved maple in former settlements

Forest formation on wastelands in former settlements

Direction "Radiation and ecological monitoring of forest ecosystems"

A basic monitoring network has been created to conduct radiation and environmental monitoring in the most common types of pine, birch, black alder forests and, for the first time in the Belarusian part of the exclusion zone, in oak formations.

Modern data have been obtained on the accumulation and transition coefficients of 137Cs and 90Sr in organs and tissues of dominant plant species of different layers of stands by forest type. Ranged series of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by components of tree, undergrowth-undergrowth, grass-moss layers in species and typological aspects have been compiled. It was confirmed that the differences in the levels of accumulation of these radionuclides by plant components are due to the species specificity of their accumulation, the conditions of their growth, primarily the moisture supply of the soils.

Time differences and trends in the dynamics of the coefficients of transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr into organs and tissues of individual components of forest phytocenoses have been established.

Restored radioecological research on the laid in 1987-1989. in hospitals. The direction and features of the long-term (1988–2018) dynamics of the parameters of pollution of soil, wood and pine bark 137Cs in mossy pine forests were revealed, and the factors determining it were established.

The main research results are presented in publications:

Garbaruk, DK Distribution of the stock of 137Cs in the forest litter and soil of the dominant forest types in the pine formation near the Chernobyl accident zone / DK Garbaruk // Sb. scientific. tr. / NAS of Belarus, Institute of forests. - Gomel, 2015. - Issue. 75: Problems of forestry and forestry. - S. 412-420.

Uglyanets, A. V. Pollution dynamics 137Сs of pine wood and bark in the heather and mossy pine forests of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant / A. V. Uglyanets, D. K. Garbaruk, M. V. Kudin // Sat. scientific. tr. / NAS of Belarus, Institute of Nature Management. - Minsk, 2017. - Issue. 31: Environmental management. - P. 79–85.

Garbaruk, D.K. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in birch stands of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP / D.K. Garbaruk, M.V. Kudin, A. V. Uglyanets // Radiobiology: actual problems: materials of the international. scientific. conf., Gomel, September 27-28. 2018 / National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Institute of Radiobiology; editorial board: I. A. Cheshik (chief editor) [and others]. - Gomel, 2018. - pp. 35–38.

Uglyanets, A. V. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr components of stand, undergrowth and undergrowth in oak forests of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone / A. V. Uglyanets, D. K. Garbaruk // Sat. scientific. tr. / NAS of Belarus, Institute of forests. - Gomel, 2019. - Issue. 79: Problems of forestry and forestry. - P. 236–247.

Kudzin, M. Distribution of 137Cs Between the Components of Pine Forest of Chernobyl NPP Exclusion Zone / M. Kudzin, V. Zabrotski, D. Harbaruk. // Impact of Cesium on Plants and the Environment / ed.: D. K. Gupta, C. Walther – Hannover, 2016. – P. 149–169.

Kudzin, M. 90Sr in the Components of Pine Forest of Belarusian Part of Chernobyl NPP Exclusion Zone / M. Kudzin, V. Zabrotski, D. Garbaruk, A. Uhlianets // Strontium Contamination in the Environment / ed.: P. Pathak, D. K. Gupta – Switzerland, 2019. – P. 159–183.

Direction "Accumulation of 90Sr and 241Am by melliferous and forage plants and products of beekeeping and crop production"

The parameters of accumulation of 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am by generative organs of melliferous plants, honey, fodder and grain crops, seedlings of coniferous and deciduous species were determined.

The possibility of obtaining normatively pure beekeeping products has been confirmed with soil contamination 137Cs up to 15 Ci/km 2 and 90Sr up to 1 Ci/km 2. Ranked ranks of melliferous plants were compiled according to the 90Sr transition into flowers of woody and cultivated melliferous plants. Honey plants are recommended, the cultivation of which contributes to a decrease in the content of radionuclides in apiproduction.

In the experimental zone of the reserve, the suitability of hayfields and pastures for grazing horses, making hay, growing straw and oat grain - for feeding these animals has been established.

Forest seedlings grown in the reserve's nurseries are not recommended for use outside the exclusion zone due to large volumes of removal 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am when digging.

The main research results are presented in publications:

Uglyanets, A. V. Contamination of grass stands 137Cs and 90Sr on fallow lands of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP / A. V. Uglyanets, D. K. Garbaruk, MV Kudin // Actual problems of earth sciences: the use of natural resources and preservation of the environment: collection of articles. materials Intern. scientific-practical Conf., 25-27 Sept. 2017: at 2 pm / Institute of Nature Management of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Brest. state un-t them. A.S. Pushkin, Brest. state tech. un-t; editorial board: A. K. Karabanov [and others]; scientific. ed. A. K. Karabanov, M. A. Bogdasarov. - Brest, 2017. - Part 2. - C 54–56.

Garbaruk, DK Peculiarities of beekeeping on radioactively contaminated lands of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP / DK Garbaruk // Problems of assessment, monitoring and conservation of biodiversity: collection of articles. materials Rep. scientific-practical eco. conf., Brest, 23 Nov. 2017 / Brest. state un-t them. A. S. Pushkin; editorial board: N. V. Shkuratova [and others]. - Brest, 2017. - pp. 200–203.

Kudin, M. V. Cultivation of forest tree seedlings in the conditions of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant / M. V. Kudin, D. K. Garbaruk, A. V. Uglyanets // Radiobiology: modern problems: materials of the international scientific conference. scientific. Conf., Gomel, 26–27 Sept. 2019 / National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Institute of Radiobiology; editorial board: I. A. Cheshik (chief editor) [and others]. - Gomel, 2019. - pp. 96–99.

Direction "Floristic research"

Floristic research in 2016–2019 a number of new species of vascular plants, new habitats of protected species previously unknown to the flora of the reserve have been identified in the reserve.

An updated list of flora of the reserve and a list of protected species have been compiled. As of March 1, 2020, the floristic composition of the flora of higher plants in the reserve includes 1157 species of vascular plants belonging to 545 genera, 136 families. The flora includes 4 species of 7 - horsetails, 16 - ferns, 11 - gymnosperms and 1119 - angiosperms (of which 247 are monocots and 872 are dicots).

The reserve is home to 47 species of plants listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, of which 14 are of international nature conservation significance, and 44 species are included in the appendix to the national Red Book, of which 10 are of international nature conservation significance.

The fund of the herbarium collection was replenished with 501 samples. At present, the herbarium and the updated information resource providing access to the constantly updated database includes 4568 herbarium sheets.

For plants listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, an "Electronic Plant Passport" is generated.

88 taxa of lichens have been identified, including 84 species and 4 subspecies.

The main research results are presented in publications:

Kudin, M. V. Flora of vascular plants of the Polesie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve / M. V. Kudin, D. K. Garbaruk, L. V. Malenok, L. M. Turchin // Coll. scientific. Art. / Office of the President of the Republic. Belarus, Berezinsky Biosphere Reserve. - Minsk, 2014. - Issue. 9: Specially protected natural areas of Belarus. Research. - P. 85-125.

Garbaruk, DK New species of protected plants for the Polesie state radiation-ecological reserve / DK Garbaruk, MV Kudin, LM Turchin // Coll. scientific. tr. / NAS of Belarus, IEB named after V.F. Kuprevich. - Minsk, 2015. - Issue. 44: Botany (research). - pp. 103–107.

Garbaruk, D.K. Finds Asplenium trichomanes L and Polypodium vulgare L. in the Polesie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve / D. K. Garbaruk, A. V. Uglyanets // Coll. scientific. tr. / National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, I.EB. V.F. Kuprevich. - Minsk, 2016. - Issue. 45: Botany (research). - S. 399–403.

Garbaruk, DK New localities of protected plant species for the southeastern part of Belarus / DK Garbaruk, AV Uglyanets, MV Kudin, LM Turchin // Coll. scientific. tr. / National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, I.EB. V.F.Kuprevich. - Minsk, 2017. - Issue. 46: Botany (research). - S. 308-312.

The obtained research results are of interest to specialists and researchers of the reserve. They are used in production activities, to update soil pollution maps of the reserve 137Cs, 90Sr, to assess the current pollution of wood products of the forest and predict its dynamics, during various plans and projects, in the preparation of analytical materials for making management decisions by government agencies, to inform the population for the purpose of radiation safety and to form public opinion about the need to comply with the conservation regime of the reserve territory, in order to promote the ideas of nature protection and biological diversity.

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